java interview

Java Interview Questions and Answers

February 20, 2024

What Is Java?

Java is a high-level programming language that was first released in May 1995. It was developed by James Gosling and his team at Sun Microsystems, which Oracle Corporation later acquired. Java is widely used for developing web and mobile applications, enterprise software, and games. Its key features include platform independence, object-oriented programming, and robustness.

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Java Interview Questions for Freshers

One should focus on core concepts such as OOPs, exception handling, data structures, and algorithms to prepare for Java Interview Questions for Freshers. Practicing coding exercises and working on real-time projects can also be helpful.

  1. What is Java?
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Java is a high-level, object-oriented programming language widely used to develop desktop, mobile, and web applications. Sun Microsystems developed it and is now owned by Oracle Corporation. Java code is compiled into bytecode that can run on any platform that has a Java Virtual Machine (JVM).

2. What is the difference between C++ and Java?

C++ and Java are object-oriented programming languages, but C++ allows for more low-level memory manipulation and has a steeper learning curve than Java. Java is platform-independent; its code runs in a virtual machine, while C++ code must be compiled for each platform.

For More Details Please read this CPP Vs Java

3. What are the key features of Java programming language?

Java is a popular object-oriented programming language that is platform-independent, meaning it can run on any operating system. Its key features include automatic memory management, robustness, scalability, and portability. It also supports multi-threading, exception handling, and dynamic binding, making it a versatile language for developing various applications.

4. What are constructors in Java?

Constructors in Java are unique methods used to initialize objects. They have the same name as the class and are called automatically when an object is created. Constructors can have parameters and be overloaded to create objects with different initial states.

5. Why Java is not 100% Object-oriented?

Java is not 100% object-oriented because it supports primitive data types, which are not objects. Additionally, Java has several static methods that can be called without creating an object, which goes against the principles of object-oriented programming.

6. What do you understand by an instance variable and a local variable?

An instance variable is a variable that is declared within a class and is associated with an instance of that class. It holds values specific to that instance and can be accessed and modified by any method within the class. On the other hand, a local variable is declared within a method or function and can only be accessed within that scope. It is temporary and loses its value once the method or function is exited.

7. Why is the Java platform independent?

Java is platform-independent because it uses the concept of Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA). Java source code is compiled into bytecode, which can be run on any machine with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed, regardless of the underlying hardware and software architecture.

Java Intermediate Interview Questions

  1. What is the difference between JDK, JRE, and JVM?

JDK (Java Development Kit) is a software development environment for developing Java applications. JRE (Java Runtime Environment) is software that provides a runtime environment to execute Java programs. JVM (Java Virtual Machine) is an abstract machine that enables the execution of compiled Java code.

2. What is the difference between checked and unchecked exceptions in Java?

In Java, checked exceptions are those that are checked by the compiler at compile-time. These exceptions must be handled by the code or declared in the method signature using the ‘throws’ keyword. On the other hand, unchecked exceptions (also known as runtime exceptions) are not checked by the compiler and can occur at runtime. They do not need to be handled or declared in the method signature.

3. Explain the concept of method overriding in Java.

Method overriding is a feature in Java that allows a subclass to implement a method already provided by its parent class. The method in the subclass must have the same name, return type, and parameters as the method in the parent class. When the method is called on an object of the subclass, the implementation in the subclass will be executed instead of the implementation in the parent class.

4. What are the advantages of using interfaces in Java programming?

Interfaces in Java provide a way to achieve abstraction and multiple inheritance. By defining an interface, you can enforce a specific behavior on any class that implements it without dictating its implementation details. It helps to create loosely coupled, modular code that is easier to maintain and extend.

5. How does garbage collection work in Java?

Garbage collection is the process of reclaiming unused memory space allocated to objects no longer used by the Java program. The garbage collector automatically identifies and deletes objects that are no longer in use, thus freeing up memory space for other objects to be created in the heap.

6. What is the difference between the “final”, “finally”, and “finalize” keywords in Java?

The “final” keyword in Java is used to declare a constant value, a class that cannot be subclassed, or a method that cannot be overridden. “finally” is used in a try-catch block and ensures that a block of code is executed no matter what happens in the try block. “finalize” is a method that the garbage collector calls before an object is destroyed to perform any cleanup actions.

7. What makes a HashSet different from a TreeSet?

A HashSet and a TreeSet are both implementations of the Set interface in Java. The main difference between them lies in their underlying data structures. HashSet uses a hash table to store its elements, while TreeSet uses a self-balancing binary search tree. This difference affects the time complexity of certain operations, such as add(), remove(), and contains().

Java Interview Questions for Experienced

  1. What are some best practices for implementing multithreading in Java?

When implementing multithreading in Java, it’s essential to use synchronization to avoid race conditions and deadlock. It would help if you also used thread pooling to avoid creating too many threads and negatively impacting performance. Additionally, it’s recommended to use thread-safe data structures and minimize the use of global variables.

2. Could you explain the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism in Java?

Inheritance is a mechanism in Java that allows a class to inherit properties and methods from another class. Polymorphism refers to the ability of an object to take on multiple forms. In Java, polymorphism is achieved through method overloading and method overriding.

3. What are Composition and Aggregation? State the difference.

Composition and Aggregation are two types of relationships in object-oriented programming. Composition is a strong relationship where the child object cannot exist without the parent object. In contrast, Aggregation is a weak relationship where the child object can exist independently of the parent object.

4. Is exceeding the memory limit possible in a program despite having a garbage collector?

Yes, a program can exceed the memory limit even if it has a garbage collector. The garbage collector can only reclaim memory that is no longer needed by the program. Still, if the program continues allocating new memory faster than the garbage collector can reclaim it, it can eventually run out of memory.

5. Is it possible to import the same class or package twice in Java and what happens to it during runtime?

It is possible to import the same class or package twice in Java. However, Java will only load one instance of the class or package during runtime, and any duplicate imports will be ignored. This is because the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) maintains a single class instance for each loaded class.

6. Explain the term “Double Brace Initialisation” in Java

Double Brace Initialization is a technique in Java that allows initializing an object with an anonymous inner class combination with an instance initializer block. It involves using two sets of braces while creating an instance of a class to define the instance initializer block and the anonymous inner class.

7. Can “this” and “super” keywords be used together?

Yes, the “this” keyword can be used with the “super” keyword in Java. When a subclass wants to call a method of its superclass that has been overridden in the subclass, it can use the “super” keyword along with the “this” keyword to access the method of the superclass.


How to prepare for Java Interview for Freshers?

1. Start with the basics: data types, loops, and control statements.
2. Practice coding exercises and solving problems.
3. Learn about OOP concepts and design patterns.
4. Brush up on your knowledge of algorithms and data structures.
5. Read about frequently asked interview questions and their solutions.
6. To improve your coding skills, Practice coding on a whiteboard or paper.
7. Keep yourself updated with the latest Java technologies and trends.

What is a Java Developer’s salary in India?

The salary of a Java Developer in India varies depending on experience, location, and company. However, on average, it ranges from INR 3,50,000 to INR 10,00,000 annually.

What are the essential skills required for a Java developer?

Some essential skills required for a Java developer are proficiency in Java programming, knowledge of databases, web development skills, and an understanding of software development principles.

What is the future of Java?

Java is expected to remain a popular language for enterprise development due to its stability and versatility. It will likely continue to evolve to support new technologies and trends.
Also Read: Future of Java

What are some Project ideas to add to your Resume?

1. Developing a website for a local small business.
2. Creating a mobile app for a non-profit organization.
3. Building a responsive design for an e-commerce platform.
4. Implementing a data analysis solution for a healthcare provider.
5. Developing a chatbot for a customer service department.